She often speaks English.
I leave home for school at 7 every morning.
He seems to feel a bit down today.
He works as a driver.
Shanghai lies in the east of China.
Columbus proved that the earth is round.
Where there is a will, there is a way.
Here comes the bus!
The next train leaves at 3 o’clock this afternoon.
How often does the shuttle bus run?
When Bill comes (不用will come), ask him to wait for me.
I shall go there tomorrow unless I’m too busy.
*闭音节：元音字母a, e, i, o, u如果发字母本来的音则称为开音节，否则称为闭音节。
1. 表示过去某时所发生的动作或存在的状态，常与表示过去的时间状语连用（e.g. yesterday, this morning, just now, a moment ago, in May, last night / year / week,>
Jim rang you just now.
Liu Ying was in America last year.
2. 表示过去经常或反复发生的动作，特别是used to do表达的句型，本身表示的就是过去常常。如：
When I was a kid, I often played football in the street.
*注意区分sb. used to do sth.（某人过去常常做某事，此处to是动词不定式标志符号）和sb. be used to sth./doing sth.（某人习惯于某物/做某事，此处to是介词）。
3. 代替一般现在时，表示一种婉转、客气、礼貌、商量的语气。此用法仅适用于少数动词（如want, hope, wonder, think, intend等）及情态动词could, would。如：
I wondered if you could have a word with me.
I hoped you could help me with my English.
Would you mind my sitting here?
It is time that sb. did sth. “某人该做某事了”
would rather sb. did sth. “宁愿某人做某事”
标志：will / shall + 动词原形
1. 表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态，通常与表示将来的时间状语连用（e.g. tomorrow, next week, in the future等）。如：
We shall have a lot of rain next month.
My husband will come back in a few days.
Fish will die without water.
When it gets warmer, the snow will start to melt.
1) will / shall + 动词原形
2) be going to + 动词原形
It is going to rain.
We are going to have a meeting today.
3) be to + 动词原形
He is to visit Japan next year.
4) be about to + 动词原形
The plane is about to start.
标志：be + 动词的现在分词
She is writing a letter upstairs.
Who are you waiting for?
It is raining hard.
I hear Mr. Green is writing another novel.
3. 表示反复出现或习惯性的动作，往往包含说话者赞扬、责备、厌恶等情绪，通常与always, constantly, continually, forever等频度副词连用。如：
John is forever asking silly questions like a stupid.
He is always thinking of others first.
1) 表示按计划、安排将要发生的动作，仅适用于部分趋向动词（如go, come, leave, start, arrive等）。如：
Uncle Wang is coming.
They're leaving for Beijing.
Please drop in when you are passing my way.
If he is still sleeping, don’t wake him up.
标志：was / were + 动词的现在分词
1. 表示过去某一时刻或一段时间正在进行的动作，过去进行时中常用的时间状语有the whole morning, all day yesterday, from January to March last year等。如：
I was having a talk with Lucy at that time.
They were watching TV at home last night.
2. 表示过去反复出现或习惯性的动作，往往包含说话者赞扬、责备、厌恶等情绪，通常与always, constantly, continually, forever等频度副词连用。如：
My brother was always losing his keys.
3. 表示按计划、安排过去某时刻将要发生的动作，仅适用于部分趋向动词（如go, come, leave, start, arrive等）。如：
He said they were leaving for Beijing this afternoon.
Granny fell asleep when she was reading.
It was raining when they left the station.
标志：have / has + 动词的过去分词
He has left the city. （结果：他目前不在这个城市）
Someone has broken the window. （结果：窗户破了）
I have been busy since last week.
He has taught in our school for 30 years.
I’ve finished half so far.
She hasn’t seen you for ages.
His father hasn’t touched beer for a whole week.
3. 表示过去到现在为止反复发生的动作或多次出现的状态，常与表示频度的副词always, often, every day等连用。如：
I have often heard that he is the cleverest person in that company.
I’ll go to your home when I have finished my homework.
If it has stopped snowing in the morning, we’ll go the park.
能与现在完成时连用的词语很多，just, already, yet, before, never, ever, recently等，但常见的有：
1) since 自从
I have been there many times since the war.
We haven’t seen each other since last week.
We have been friends ever since.
2) in / for / during the past/last … years 在过去/最近…中
I’ve been ill for the past three weeks.
Great changes have take place in the last ten years.
I have been here (for) the last/past month.
3) so far 到目前为止
We haven’t had any trouble so far.
So far the search for the missing middle-aged woman has been fruitless.
4) up to/until now 到现在为止
Up to now he’s been quiet.
Up to now, the work has been easy.
I have heard nothing from him up till now.
Up till now we have planted over 2000 trees.
5) It is/will be the first/second … time that … 这是第一/二…次…
It’s the first time (that) I’ve been here.
It will be the first time (that) I’ve spoken in public.
It is the second time (that) I have met him today.
6) This is + 形容词最高级 + that … 这是最…
This is the best film that I’ve (ever) seen.
I have seen this film. （我已经看过了这部电影）
I saw this film yesterday. （我是昨天看的这部电影）
2) 现在完成时常与模糊的时间状语连用（如for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, always等），或者干脆没有时间状语；
而一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用（如yesterday, last night, …ago, in 1980, in February等）。
3) 现在完成时表示持续时一般使用延续性动词（如live, teach, work, know等）；
而一般过去时常使用瞬间动词（如begin, buy, die, marry等）。如：
He has lived in Hangzhou since last spring.
My grandfather bought the car five years ago.
(×) He has died for two years. 他死了两年了。
(√) He has been dead for two years.
(√) He died two years ago.
(×) The film has begun for 10 minutes. 电影开演十分钟了。
(√) The film has been>(√) The film began 10 minutes ago.
(×) She has married for three years. 她结婚有三年了。
(√) She has been married for three years.
(√) She married Mike three years ago.
2) 学生往往不懂如何区分have been to和have gone to，尽管两者均可后接地点，但have been to表示去过某地（现在已经回来了），have gone to表示到某地去了（现在还没回来）。如：
She has been to Paris (three times).
She has gone to Paris.
标志：had + 动词的过去分词
By the end of last week he had finished the work.
He had left when I arrived.
We had not seen each other since I left Beijing.
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3. 某些表意向的动词（如intend, think, plan, expect, hope等）的过去完成时表示主语未曾实现的愿望、希望、打算。如：
I had intended to visit you last night, but someone called and I couldn’t get away.
We had hoped that you would come, but you didn’t.
4. （虚拟语气）在条件状体从句或wish / would rather等后面的从句中，使用过去完成时表示与过去事实相反的主观愿望。如：
The party wouldn’t have been so perfect if you hadn’t come.
I wish I had gone with you to the concert that day.
He studied there two years ago.他两年前在那儿学习（离现在两年）
He said he had studied there two years before.他说他两年前在那儿学习过。（离他说话时两年）
2) 特别注意：两个动作如果按顺序发生，又不强调先后，或者用then, and, but等连词连接时，多用一般过去时。如：
When she saw the mouse, she screamed.
My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it.
标志：would + 动词原形
He said he would come here next Friday.
I knew that he would help us when we were in trouble.
The old man would sit>When I worked>
If I were you, I would not do that.
If he were here, he would show us how to do it.
1) was / were going to + 动词原形。如：
He told us that he was going to attend the meeting.
She said that I was going to be sent to meet her at the railway station.
2) was / were to + 动词原形。如：
The building was to be completed next month.
Li Lei was to arrive soon.
3) was / were about to + 动词原形。如：
We were about to leave there when it began to rain heavily and suddenly.
He was about to have lunch when the bell rang.